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A deer resistant species with delicate flowers that will readily reseed in rich, moist soils. Excellent late summer/early fall blooms to feed pollinators, including migrating monarchs! Perfect for naturalizing lowlands and woodland edges.


Light: Full Sun, Part Sun/Shade

Soil Moisture: Wet Mesic, Mesic, Dry Mesic

Soil Type: Loam, Silt, Humus

Height: 1'-2'

Bloom Color: Blue

Bloom Time: Sep-Oct

Root Type: Rhizome

Notable Wildlife Interactions: Flowers attract a number of pollinators, but most often long-tonged bees, butterflies, and skippers. Hosts moths such as the clymene moth, lined ruby tiger moth, and eupatorium borer moth. Bitter foliage makes it unpalatable to mammals.

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