An unassuming small tree best known for being one of the few native hosts for giant swallowtail butterflies! Generally hardy and adaptable, not actually an ash, and berries can be showy against fall foliage. Best grown where it is allowed to form a colony and thorny branches won’t be a problem. Tolerates bright shade but may fail to fruit in lower light conditions.

Light: Full Sun, Part Sun/Shade

Soil Moisture: Wet Mesic, Mesic, Dry Mesic

Soil Type: Adaptable 

Height: 12’-25’

Width: 10’-20’ 

Bloom Color: Yellow, Green

Bloom Time: April

Fruit: Clusters of small red fruits turn dark red or black when mature.

Fall Color: Yellow

Root Type: Branching

Notable Wildlife Interactions: Flowers attract bees and flies. Hosts the giant swallowtail butterfly and a few species of leafhopper. Berries are eaten by a few animals such as bobwhite, vireo, and chipmunks.

Notes: Runnering and colonial habit. Very thorny. Seriously. It is so pointy it’s kinda humorously absurd. Probably not best for high traffic areas. Prime for spite fences, I suppose.

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